Cancer that affects the prostate gland in males is known as prostate cancer. The prostate gland is a small, walnut-shaped gland located directly beneath the bladder and in front of the rectum. This organ generates and secretes some of the fluid that makes up semen. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In 2020, it was responsible for more than 1.4 million, i.e. 14.1% of all male cancers. Prostate cancer caused around 6.8% of all cancer deaths in the country that year. According to Globocan 2020, prostate cancer in Pakistan ranked thirteenth in terms of new cases as approximately 4,500 were registered. It was sixteenth in terms of cancer mortality, accounting for around 2,000 deaths. Over the past decade, treatment for localized and metastatic prostate cancer has changed rapidly. Modern surgery and radiation therapy have reduced complications and improved the quality of life for men.
Prostate cancer develops from uncontrolled prostate gland cell growth. If left untreated, this tumor can spread to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer can be slow-growing or aggressive. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or a combination may be used for treatment.
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Pakistan
It is a significant health concern in Pakistan. While the exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, several risk factors have been identified that may increase the likelihood of developing this disease. In this article, we will discuss the seven most common risk factors for prostate cancer.
The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. According to surveys and stats, men over the age of 65 account for around 65% of all prostate cancer cases in Pakistan. This is due to the fact that the prostate gland, which is located just below the bladder, tends to grow larger with age, which can lead to cancer development.
Men with a family history of prostate cancer are more likely to develop the disease themselves. A man’s risk of developing prostate cancer is doubled if someone in his family has the disease. This risk factor is especially relevant in Pakistan, where familial ties are strong. Men with a family history of prostate cancer should consult their physicians about screening options and the most effective risk management strategies.
Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of many cancers, including prostate cancer in Pakistan. Obesity prevalence has been rapidly increasing in the country in recent years, which may be contributing to the rising incidence of prostate cancer.
A diet high in red meat and dairy products may increase the risk of developing the disease. A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, on the other hand, may help lower the risk of prostate cancer. In Pakistan, where meat consumption is high, men should be aware of the risks associated with a diet high in red meat.
Several types of cancer, including prostate cancer, are associated with a higher risk of smoking. In Pakistan, where smoking rates are high, it is crucial that men quit smoking or refrain from starting in order to reduce their risk of prostate cancer and other health issues. Androgens (male hormones) have been linked to the development of prostate cancer, and smoking may increase their levels in the body.
Additionally, smoking may increase oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which can damage cells and contribute to the development of cancer. In addition to these direct bodily effects, smoking may indirectly contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Men who smoke or have a smoking history should consult their doctors about prostate cancer screening and ways to reduce their risk.
Research has shown that high levels of testosterone can increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells are sensitive to androgens, which include testosterone. Androgens stimulate the growth and proliferation of prostate cells, including cancerous cells. This is why reducing testosterone levels is a common treatment option for advanced prostate cancer.
However, it is important to note that testosterone itself is not the direct cause of prostate cancer. Rather, it is the interaction between testosterone and other factors that can contribute to the development of prostate cancer.
Lack of Physical Activity
A lack of physical activity has been identified as a risk factor for prostate cancer in Pakistan. Physical activity regulates insulin levels and reduces inflammation, both of which can contribute to the development of cancer, and it may help reduce the number of circulating androgens, which have been linked to the development of prostate cancer. In addition, being overweight is a known risk factor for prostate cancer, and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to obesity. The elevated levels of insulin and other hormones that result from being overweight or obese have been linked to the promotion of cancer cell growth.
Prostate cancer in Pakistan is a serious health issue that affects many men. Understanding the risk factors associated with prostate cancer can help men make well-informed decisions about their health, despite the fact that there is no way to prevent the disease with absolute certainty.
Fortunately, men can take a number of steps to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer. Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, remaining physically active, undergoing screenings, quitting smoking, managing stress, and limiting alcohol consumption are all crucial ways to reduce the risk of this disease. Men can take charge of their health and reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer by implementing these changes and consulting regularly with their physicians.