Types of Cardiac Surgeries

Types of Cardiac Surgeries

Types of Cardiac Surgeries

What is the number one cause of death globally?

Traffic accidents? No.

Cancer? No.

It is cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Around 17.9 million people lost their lives to CVD in 2019. This makes up 32% of total global deaths [1]. Therefore, the pressing question at hand is what are these diseases and how can we prevent them.

Cardiovascular diseases refer to a group of disorders. These affect the heart and its blood vessels. Some of these conditions are congenital which means that a baby is born with a particular defect. However, some conditions develop with age because of bad dietary habits and lack of physical activity. Genes might also play a significant role in their causation.

As the diseases of the heart have escalated, the researchers and medical technologists have also worked day and night on the development of diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical technologies and equipment that have changed the landscape of cardiac medicine.

This article aims to shed light on the various high-tech cardiac surgical techniques that have been developed and that are used worldwide to repair the defects in the heart and its vessels, muscles, and valves.

1. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery

This surgery is carried out for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) which refers to the narrowing of arteries that supply nutrition and blood to the heart. Narrowing takes place due to the deposition of plaque that is made up of cholesterol. Blood vessels or grafts may be used to bypass a portion of an artery that has plaque built up inside it. It is also called open heart surgery.

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2. Congenital Heart Defect Corrective Surgery

The most common birth defect globally is congenital heart disease (CHD). Every fifteen minutes, a mother gives birth to a child with CHD [3]. Heart defects are treated based on their severity and type. Some heart defects might not need any treatment at all and some may be treated with catheters. Severe heart defects, which a baby is born with, are treated using this type of surgery. Some of these congenital heart defects include tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and transposition of the great arteries [4].

3. Heart Valve Surgeries

Heart valve surgeries are performed for repair or replacement of heart valves that fail to function properly. The two ways in which valves may cause trouble are stenosis and regurgitation. Stenosis refers to a narrowing of the valve opening. Whereas, in regurgitation, the valve does not completely close [5].

4.  Heart Transplant

Heart failure is avoided at all costs. The doctors use medications and other devices to prevent heart failure from getting severe. However, heart transplant surgery becomes necessary as a last resort. In this procedure, a diseased heart is replaced with a healthy heart from a compatible donor [6][7].


Transparent Hands & Heart Health

Our organization, in collaboration with Pakistan Children’s Heart Foundation, has been dedicated to serving patients who suffer from heart diseases. Through the generous donations of our donors, we help fund cardiac surgeries for the treatment of congenital cardiac defects as well as complex heart problems that develop later on in life.

The kind of cardiac procedures and surgeries that we have been able to conduct so far include angiography, angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, valve replacement surgeries and septal defects repair surgeries, etc. The patients who require surgical cardiac intervention usually need to be operated on an urgent basis. Consequently, we make sure that patients who are registered with us get timely medical assistance.

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The techniques used for the treatment of heart have been thoroughly researched and technological advancements have been made. Yet, prevention is always better than cure.

We need to mend our ways if we want to avoid chronic complications later on in life. The key risk factors that have been associated with cardiovascular diseases are a sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary choices, and the use of tobacco and alcohol. These behaviors end up translating into high blood glucose and lipid levels, hypertension, and obesity. Small steps like making healthy dietary choices and maintaining an active lifestyle can help prevent numerous chronic diseases.

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[1]      World Health Organization (WHO), “Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs),” 11-Jun-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds). [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[2]      Johns Hopkins Medicine, “Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery .” [Online]. Available: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[3]      Children’s National, “Facts on Congenital Heart Disease .” [Online]. Available: https://childrensnational.org/departments/childrens-national-heart-institute/cardiology/resources-for-families/facts-on-congenital-heart-disease. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[4]      Yale Medicine, “Pediatric Congenital Heart Surgery .” [Online]. Available: https://www.yalemedicine.org/conditions/pediatric-congenital-heart-surgery. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[5]      Stanford Health Care, “Heart Valve Surgery .” [Online]. Available: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/v/valvular-surgery.html. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[6]      Stanford Health Care, “Heart Transplant – Heart Replacement  .” [Online]. Available: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/h/heart-transplant.html. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021].

[7]      Stanford Health Care, “Types of Heart Surgery .” [Online]. Available: https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-treatments/h/heart-surgery/types.html. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2021]

Author: Ammara Arif
(Digital Content Writer)
LinkedIn Profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ammara-arif-6b449b169


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